Thomas König, Lars Mäder
Non-conformable, partial and conformable transposition: A competing risk analysis of the transposition process of directives in the EU15

Although member states are obliged to transpose directives into domestic law in a conformable manner and receive considerable time for their transposition activities, we identify three levels of transposition outcomes for EU directives: conformable, partially conformable and non-conformable. Compared with existing transposition models, which do not distinguish between different transposition outcomes, we examine the factors influencing each transposition process by means of a competing risk analysis.We find that preference-related factors, in particular the disagreement of a member state and the Commission regarding a directive’s outcome, play a much more strategic role than has to date acknowledged in the transposition literature. Whereas disagreement of a member state delays conformable transposition, it speeds up non-conformable transposition. Disagreement of the Commission only prolongs the transposition process.We therefore conclude that a stronger focus on an effective sanctioning mechanism is warranted for safeguarding compliance with directives.