Seeing your Religion—Regional Variation of Anti-Muslim Racism in the German Labour Market

Research question/goal: 


In cooperation with: Zerrin Salikutluk, Christian Hunkler, Yuliya Kosyakova.

Muslim immigrants in Germany and other European countries face disadvantages in the labour market. These include lower labour market participation and a higher risk of unemployment (Auer et al. 2018). But even those who succeed in gaining access to the labour market face a number of disadvantages, e.g. in occupational positioning or income, compared to the majority population (e.g. Auer et al. 2017, Schieckoff & Sprengholz 2021). In principle, these disadvantages are more pronounced among Muslim women than among Muslim men (e.g. Salikutluk et al. 2020). The gender difference is particularly evident among newly arrived refugees: after five years of residence in Germany, about 60 percent of refugee men have entered the labour market, whereas only about 30 percent of refugee women have managed to do so (Kosyakova et al. 2021). Interestingly, obvious reasons such as trauma and educational interruptions due to flight as well as legal uncertainties seem to play only a minor role in this (Hunkler & Khourshed 2020, Hunkler et al. 2021, Kosyakova & Brenzel 2020). To date, however, there are few studies that address intersectional inequality (multiple discrimination) based on flight, gender, and religion in the labour market context (e.g. Kosyakova et al. 2021, Salikutluk & Menke 2021). In this project, we focus on the side of employers and the role of regional factors in the structural discrimination of Muslim immigrants, especially Muslim women. To do so, our analyses will examine the labour market situation of both established migrant groups and newly arrived refugees.


Current stage: 

In 2023, we fielded an online survey with approx.19,000 respondents and a survey experiment among approx. 4,000 companies in Germany. We then used geolocational information to link these data with comprehensive socioeconomic indicators (local unemployment, foreign share, etc.). The first analysis phase involves producing working papers by mid-2024. In addition, the project staff are investigating the possibilities to extend the project for at least one year.

Fact sheet

2022 to 2025
Data Sources: 
Field experiments, registry data, web scraping
Geographic Space: