Suzanne Hoogeveen, Jana Berkessel, Tobias Ebert, Susanne Frick, Moritz Ingendahl, David Izydorczyk, Ruben Laukenmann, Martin Schnuerch, Marcel Schreiner, Vera Vogel, et al.
A many-analysts approach to the relation between religiosity and well-being

Religion, Brain & Behavior, (publ. online before print)
ISSN: 2153-599X (print), 2153-5981 (online)

The relation between religiosity and well-being is one of the most researched topics in the psychology of religion, yet the directionality and robustness of the effect remains debated. Here, we adopted a many-analysts approach to assess the robustness of this relation based on a new cross-cultural dataset (N=10,535 participants from 24 countries). We recruited 120 analysis teams to investigate (1) whether religious people self-report higher well-being, and (2) whether the relation between religiosity and self-reported well-being depends on perceived cultural norms of religion (i.e., whether it is considered normal and desirable to be religious in a given country). In a two-stage procedure, the teams first created an analysis plan and then executed their planned analysis on the data. For the first research question, all but 3 teams reported positive effect sizes with credible/confidence intervals excluding zero (median reported β=0.120). For the second research question, this was the case for 65% of the teams (median reported β=0.039). While most teams applied (multilevel) linear regression models, there was considerable variability in the choice of items used to construct the independent variables, the dependent variable, and the included covariates.