Fritz Sager, Eva Thomann, Christine Zollinger, Nico van der Heiden, Céline Mavrot
Street-level Bureaucrats and New Modes of Governance – How Conflicting Roles Affect the Implementation of the Swiss Ordinance on Veterinary Medicinal Products

Public Management Review, 2014: 16, issue 4, pp. 481-502
ISSN: 1471-9037 (print); 1471-9045 (online)

Lipsky's seminal concept of street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) focuses on their role as public servants. However, in the course of new modes of governance, private actors have gained an additional role as implementation agents. We explore the logic of private SLBs during the implementation of the Swiss Ordinance on Veterinary Medicinal Products (OVMP) where veterinarians are simultaneously implementing agents, policy addressees, and professionals with economic interests. We argue that, because of contradictory reference systems, it is problematic for the output performance if an actor is simultaneously the target group of a policy and its implementing agent.