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EURODATA Newsletter No. 5 Article 2, p.8-11

The Instituto de Ciências Sociais (ICS): Past and Present

The Instituto de Ciências Sociais (ICS) was created on the 10th of February 1982 under the auspices of the Universidade de Lisboa as an interdisciplinary body for scientific research and training (Legal Decree 46/48).

It grew out of the earlier Gabinete de Investigações Sociais (GIS), founded in 1962 and directed with great enthusiasm and skill by the late (1991) Professor A. Sedas Nunes. The creation of the ICS represented the legal and formalized embodiment of the activities, achievements and developments of the GIS over its first 20 years. A large part of the current ICS team members were GIS investigators as well. The review Análise Social, founded in 1963, has been published without interruption since its first issue - 126 editions over the last 30 years. ICS has actively undertaken to add to its library holdings, beginning in the days of GIS and continuing to the present. The ICS Social History Archive is a valuable research tool, and the collections in the area of the Social Sciences are among the finest in Portugal.

"The University should be at the service of the Portuguese society and culture", Professor Sedas Nunes observed on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the (former) GIS, and indeed, the task of the ICS was to prepare the ground for Social Sciences at a time when the political regime harboured profound mistrust for that particular discipline. Thus, the research and seminars which culminated in the special editions of Análise Social - Social Aspects of Development in Portugal (no. 7-8, 1964); Sociology and Planning (no. 9-10, 1965); The University in Portuguese Society (no. 20-24, 1968); and Development in Portugal - Social and Institutional Aspects (no. 27-28, 1969) - were of utmost importance. Such studies were unprecendented and it would not be overstating the case to claim that, in their own way, they contributed to the democratization and mordernization of Portuguese society.

As a result of the more favourable climate following the Revolution of the 25th of April (1974), the social sciences in Portugal underwent a process of development, differentiation and specialization in which the GIS, and later the ICS, continued to play an energetic role, both in terms of research, which was reinforced with additional staff and extended resources, and in terms of training for young researchers, many of whom are now part of the ICS's team. A brief look at some of the Institute's symposia and publications since 1960 is revealing, and points not only to the achievements in the up-dating of theory, methodology and across-the-board topics in the social sciences field in Portugal, but also to the pathfinding and forging of lasting links with the rest of the country's scientific community. Of special note are:

  • symposia on the Nineteenth Century in Portugal (AS, no. 61-62, 1980);
  • The Labour Movement in Portugal (AS, no. 67-69, 1981);
  • The Formation of Contemporary Portugal (AS, no. 72-74, 1982-83);
  • Portuguese Youth and Religion (AS, no. 86, 1985);
  • Social Change in Portugal Today (AS, no. 87-89, 1985);
  • Women in Portugal (AS, no. 92-93, 1986);
  • Economics in Portugal from the Vintismo to the 20th Century (AS, no. 112-113, 1991);
    • A Social History of Elites (AS, no. 118-119, 1993).

The ICS has released a vast body of additional work, as well - of results of research and dissertations of former and current team members, and findings of other investigators associated with the Institute.

Current undertakings at the ICS include some 70 projects of varying size and scope, funded by a wide range of sources, including doctorate dissertations and other post-graduate pursuits. Major areas include:

  • Economic History and Sociology of Labour, Development, and Social Geography
  • Political History and Sociology, History and Sociology of International Relations
  • Sociology of Education, Culture and Cultural Anthropology
  • Sociology of the Familiy and Youth, Anthropology and Social Psychology
    • Modern and Contemporary History.

Responsibility for these projects rests with five principal investigators, another sixteen specialists with Ph.D.s, and five more career Senior Research Fellows enjoying the support of nine additional researchers. All of these team members are contracted on a full-time basis and the greater part dedicate themselves to research work exclusively.

During the last five years no fewer than ten members of the team have completed their Ph.D.s or passed public examinations qualifying them as research fellows - four of them receiving their degrees abroad. We should also mention the Masters Degree established at the ICS in 1992, as well as the recent graduates and grant receivers who break into social sciences research by collaborating on ICS projects already underway. The ICS has also hosted research seminars which are open to the national and international scientific community.

The Institute has organized and hosted symposia, both national and international, on a variety of topics, as shown in table 1. As a university institution which is predominantly research-oriented, and in light of its background, the ICS has and continues to have an extensive network of inter-institutional ties which encompasses virtually all of the Portuguese institutions in the area, involving scientific cooperation, financial support for ICS activities, projects and studies. In addition to

Table 1: National and International Symposia Organized and Hosted
- The Restoration in its Day, 1990;
- seminar on the Sociology of the Family, 1991;
- Second Congress of Portuguese Economic History, 1993;
- conferences on Convergence in Europe, 1993, and on International Monetary Arrangements, 1993;
- seminar on Industry and the Environment, 1993;
- seminar on Culture and Economy, 1994.
Internationally (providing organization and human logistical support):
- following the Congress of the European Society on Rural Sociology (Braga, 1986), the ICS hosted in Lisbon the World Congress of Leisure (International Association of Sociology);
- the Colloquium Familles et Contextes Sociaux: les temps et les espaces de la diversité (International Association of French-speaking Sociologists);
- the annual meeting of the International Committee for the History of Parliaments and Assemblies (1992);
- the 5th Meeting of the International Conference Group on Portugal;
- the Congress of the European Society of Experimental Social Psychology (1993);
- the 3rd Luso-Afro-Brazillian Congress on Social Sciences (1994) at the invitation of the participants of the 2nd Congress, in Sao Paulo, Brazil;
- since 1991 the ICS also organizes, in collaboration with the Cultural Institute of Macau, a seminar on The Pearl River Delta: new perspectives in social research.

State funding, the Junta Nacional Investigação Científica e Tecnológica (JNICT), and the Gulbenkian Foundation (the ICS's three principle sources of funding), other contributors include The Luso-American Foundation, the Orient Foundation and government departments - the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Youth, in particular. Prominent among protocols in the business sector are those with the Caixa Geral de Depositos (the State Building Society), and the Banco de Portugal (the Central Bank).

Internationally, the ICS has signed an agreement with the Tinker Foundation (USA) for the funding of an "Observatory" on the Portuguese Social Situation, as well as a cooperation and exchange accord with the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (Paris), among others.

Both individually and collectively, the Institute's members are involved in networks and associations at both the national and international levels, cooperating on joint projects and professional and scientific exchanges. Space permits only mentioning of some of the more salient on-going undertakings of international character:

  • Group Europa 12: Costs and Benefits of the EEC (coordinator in Portugal: Prof. J. Silvia Lopes);
  • European Centre for Social Welfare, Training and Research (Vienna): Integration of Youth into Society;
  • European Science Foundation: Network on Transitions in Youth;
  • EGRIS (European Group for Regional and International Social Research): Human Capital and Mobility;
  • Educational Testing Service (USA) with the participation of OECD, UNESCO and EUROSTAT: International Adult Literacy Survey;
  • Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (Paris): European Network for Local Comparative Analyses of Agricultural Practices;
  • Mannheim Centre for European Social Research: The Parliaments of Western Europe - Majority and Minority Governments;
  • EU Commission: Outlook on Family Policies;
  • Social Science Research Council, Sub-Committee for Southern Europe (New York): The Consolidation of Democracy in the Countries of Southern Europe;
    • Volkswagen Foundation (Programme Area on Europe after the Southern Enlargement of the EU): Development Processes and Structural Problems of Southern Europe and Turkey - A Comparative Perspective (coordinator in Portugal: Prof. Farelo Lopes, ISCTE).

The cornerstone of the ICS is firmly founded upon the accumulated theoretical and methodological experience gathered by its own researchers. Raised upon that foundation is a multi-valent structure, embracing a diversity of outlooks and disciplines. As it has from the beginning, the ICS will continue to monitor the challenges to Portuguese society and Portugal's responses, while promoting the further development of the social sciences at every opportunity.

Publications of GIS/ICS

I. Periodical Publications

1. Revista "Análise Social"

126 nos. published

Special numbers

No. 7-8: Aspectos sociais do desenvolvimento em Portugal.

No. 9-10: Sociologia e planeamento.

No. 20-21: A universidade na vida Portuguesa - I.

No. 22-23-24: A universidade na vida Portuguesa - II.

No. 27-28: O desenvolvimento em Portugal - Aspectos sociais e institucionais.

No. 35-36: Sobre metodologia e epistemologia das ciências sociais.

No. 61-62: O século XIX em Portugal.

No. 67-68-69: O movimento operário em Portugal.

No. 72-73-74: A formação de Portugal contemporâneo - I.

No. 77-78-79: A formação de Portugal contemporâneo - II.

No. 86: Os jovens Portugueses e a religião.

No. 87-88-89: Mudanças sociais no Portugal de hoje.

No. 92-93: A mulher em Portugal.

No. 100: Comemoração.

No. 112-113: Portugal económico: do vintismo ao século XX.

No. 116-117: História social das elites.

No. 118-119: Portugal e a integração Europeia: balanço e perspectivas.

No. 122-124: Homenagem a Sedas Nunes.

No. 125-126: Homenagem a Sedas Nunes.

2. Boletim de Estudos Operários

A bi-annual publication destinated to collect and distribute relevant basic elements on completed studies and on studies worked on. Nine numbers published.

II. Serial Publications

1. Collection "Cadernos GIS"

1. A. Teixera de Sousa, Os Trabalhadores Portugueses na Região de Paris.

2. Mário Pinto e Carlos Moura, As Estruturas Sindicais Portuguesas.

3. Alfredo de Sousa, Inflacção e Desenvolvimento em Portugal.

4. Marinús Pires de Lima, O Inquérito Sociológico - Problemas de Metodologia.

5. Vasco Pulido Valente, O Estado Liberal e o Ensino - Os Liceus Portugueses (1834-1930).

6. João Ferreira de Almeida e José Madureira Pinto, Significação Conotativa nos Discursos das Ciências Sociais.

7. Manuel Luís Marinho Antunes, A Emigração Portuguesa desde 1950 - Dados e Comentários.

8. Joaquim Aguiar, Para uma Análise Sistémica da Produção de Teorias nas Ciências Sociais.

9. A. Sedes Nunes, Sobre o Problema do Conhecimento nas Ciências Sociais (7a edição).

10. A. Sedas Nunes, Questões Preliminares sobre as Ciências Sociais.

11. Maria da Luz Valente Pereira, Modelo do Sistema Urbano à Escala de Zona Urbana.

12. A. Teixeira de Sousa e Eduardo de Freitas, Subsídios para a Análise da População Activa Operária em Portugal.

13. Manuel Silva, Análise Sistémica, Modelização Social e Planificação.

14. Trabalhos Publicados pelo Gabinete de Investigações Sociais - Janeiro de 1963/Dezembro de 1974.

2. Collection "Estudos e Documentos ICS"

1. João Ferreira de Almeida e J. Madureira Pinto, Estruturas Agrárias e Migrações no Noroeste Português: a Freguesia de Fonte Arcada.

2. Maria de Fátima Bonifácio, Industrialização Oitocentista e Concorrência Externa: a Indústria Chapeleira de 1814 a 1914.

3. José Manuel Rolo, A Componente Tecnológica Estrangeira da Indústria Electrometalomecânica Pesada Portuguesa.

4. Carlos Lopes, Guiné-Bissau: Referências Bibliográficas para a Pesquisa em Ciências Sociais (1960-1980).

5. Maria Filomena Mónica (organizadora), Os Vidreiros da Marinha Grande - Actas Sindicais.

6. José Manuel Seruya, Desemprego Juvenil em Portugal.

7. Maria Filomena Mónica (orientadora), Poemas Operários.

8. Manuel Braga da Cruz, Criminalidade e Delinquência Juvenil em Portugal.

9. José Manuel Seruya, Sistema Educativo e Políticas da Educação em Portugal: O Ensino Secundário e Superior entre 1970 e 1982.

10. Ana Nunes de Almeida, Comportamentos Demográficos e Estratégias Familiares.

11. Luísa Braula Reis, A Evolução das Estruturas Familiares em Portugal.

12. José Manuel Seruya e Luís Miguel Seruya, Sistema Educativo e Mercado de Emprego.

13. Manuel Braga da Cruz, Luísa Braula Reis e José Manuel Seruya, Os Jovens e a Política: Políticas de Juventude e Juventudes Políticas em Portugal.

14. Maria Fliomena Mónica e Maria Goretti Matias (organizadoras), Um Socialista Ignorado: Luís de Figueiredo.

15. António Ventura (introdução e organização), Os Corticeiros de Portalegre - Actas Sindicais (1910-1920).

16. Ana Nunes de Almeida, Bibliografia sobre a Família e a Mulher no Portugal do século XX.

17. J. Manuel Nazareth e Fernando de Sousa, A Demografia Portuguesa do Antigo Regime. Samora Correia em 1790.

  1. Maria João Araújo e Sá, Condicionantes Demográficas de Evolução Discente do Ensino Básico no Distrito de Aveiro. Um Ensaio Metodológico.

19. Paulo Guimarães, Indústria, Mineiros e Sindicatos. Universos Opérarios do Baixo Alentejo: Dos Finais do séc. XIX à Primeira Metade do séc. XX.

20. Paulo Pedroso, Crescimento e Estatização da Actividade Docente. A Evolução do Corpo Docente em Portugal (1964-1986).

21. Nelson Matias, Qualificação Académica e Profissional dos Professores.

22. Nelson Matias, Ingresso e Permanência na Profissão Docente.

23. José Carlos Seabra Pereira, Professores: as Funções Desempenhadas e as Condições de Exercício da Profissão.

24. Pedro Telhado Pereira, Maria do Carmo Seabra, Remunerações dos Professores do Ensino não Superior.

25. Maria de Fátima Villa de Freitas, Comportamentos Sócio-culturais dos Professores. Alguns aspectos.

26. Manuel Braga da Cruz, A Sindicalização dos Professores. Resultados de um Inquérito.

3. Collection "Cadernos do ICS"
Estudos da Juventude

1. Maria da Paz Campos Lima, Inserção na Vida Activa, Emprego e Desemprego em Portugal e na CEE.

2. Fernando Honório, A Mobilidade Geográfica e Sócio-profissional Induzida pelo Sistema de Formação Profissional.

3. Paulo Antunes Ferreira, Valores dos Jovens Portugueses nos Anos 80.

4. Pedro Moura Ferreira, Luís Garcia, Jorge Vala, Delinquência e Criminalidade Recenseadas dos Jovens em Portugal.

5. José Luís Casanova, Estudantes Universitários. Composição Social, Representações e Valores.

6. Luísa Schmidt, A Procura e Oferta Cultural e os Jovens.

  1. Paulo Pedroso, A Formação Profissional Inicial.

4. Collection "Estudos e Investigações"

  1. José Manuel Pais el al., Práticas Culturais dos Liboetas, Lisboa, 1994.
  2. Actas do Congresso Mundial do Lazer, Lisboa, 1994.

III. Books

1. Collection "Análise Social" (published in collaboration with Editorial Presença)

1. José Manuel Rolo, Capitalismo, Tecnologia e Dependência em Portugal.

2. Manuel Villaverde Cabral, O Operariado nas Vésperas da República.

3. A. Sedas Nunes, Questões Preliminares sobre as Ciências Sociais (8.a edição).

4. J. Madureira Pinto, Ideologia: Inventário Crítico de um Conceito.

5. Maria Filomena Mónica, Educação e Sociedade no Portugal de Salazar.

6. J. Manuel Nazareth, O Envelhecimento de População Portuguesa.

7. Mário Murteira, Desenvolvimento, Subdesenvolvimento e o Modelo Português.

8. Manuel Braga da Cruz, As Origens da Democracia Cristã e o Salazarismo.

9. O Século XIX em Portugal - Comunicações ao Colóquio Organizado pelo Gabinete de Investigações Socias (2.a edição)

10. Maria Filomena Mónica, Escola e Classes Sociais.

11. J. Manuel Nazareth, Explosão Demográfica e Planeamento Familiar.

12. Mário Murteira, Lições de Economia Política do Desenvolvimento.

13. Maria de Lourdes Lima dos Santos, Para uma Sociologia da Cultura Burguesa em Portugal no Século XIX.

14. Maria de Lourdes Lima dos Santos, Intelectuais Protugueses na Primeira Metada de Oitocentos.

15. Manuel Braga da Cruz, O Partido e o Estado no Salazarismo.

16. Mário Murteira, Desenvolvimento: Ideologia ou Utopia? As Periferias de Expressão Portuguesa na Economia Mundial.

2. Collection "Teses e Teorias" (established in 1985)

1. Maria Filomena Mónica, Artesãos e Operários - Indústria, Capitalismo e Classe Operária em Portugal (1870-1934).

2. João Ferreira de Almeida, Classes Sociais nos Campos: Camponeses Parciais numa Região do Noroeste.

3. Collection "Aproximação e Ensaios" (established in 1985)

1. José Machado Pais: Artes de Amar da Burguesia - a Imagem da Mulher e os Rituais de Galantaria nos Meios Burgueses do Século XIX em Portugal.

2. José Manuel Rolo, O Regresso a África: a Cooperação Portuguesa com os Países Africanos de Expressão Oficial Portuguesa.

4. Collection "Análise Social" (published at Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda)

1. Jaime Reis, O Atraso Económico Português em Perspectiva Histórica: Estudos sobre a Economia Portuguesa na Segunda Metade do Séc. XIX (1850-1930).

2. José Machado Pais, Culturas Juvenis.

3. Pedro Lains, A Economia Portuguesa no Séc. XIX: Crescimento Económico e Comércio Externo (1857-1913).

4. Fátima Patriarca, A Questão Social no Salazarismo (1930-1947).

5. Hélder Fonseca, O Alentejo no Século XIX: Economia e Atitudes Económicas.

For further information please contact:

Instituto de Ciências Sociais (ICS) da Universidade de Lisboa
Av. Forças Armadas
Edif. I.S.C.T.E., Ala Sul, 1.o
P-1600 Lisboa, Portugal
Phone: 793 22 72
Fax: 796 49 53