Individual Responses to International Democratizing Action (IRIDA)

Research question/goal: 

This project focuses on the field of international democracy promotion and has three aims: conceptual innovation, data gathering and hypotheses testing. First, it conceptualizes the types of outside democratizing actions: evaluations (whether electoral competition functioned in a desirable manner) and interventions (conditioning benefits on the content of the evaluation). The project develops a theory of how the different combinations of actions affects individual attitudes toward the state of democratic rights, toward particular political parties and toward the outside actor/s. The theory suggests that a respondents’ attitude toward the governing party and toward the foreign actor, together with the expectation of benefits from agreeing with the outsider’s position, dictate individual responses. Second, in order to collect data, representative surveys will be conducted in Hungary, Slovakia, Serbia, Bosnia, Ukraine and Turkey. Third, the new data will allow researchers to test hypotheses about who changes their mind and in what ways if outsiders intervene in a democracy. European and German foundations (DFG) will be approached for funding this 3-year project.

Current stage: 

A book summarizing the main findings of the project was published in September 2019 at Cambridge University Press (Johannes Bubeck and Nikolay Marinov: Rules and Allies: Foreign Election Interventions). Another manuscript has been under revise and resubmit at the British Journal of Political Science since August 2019 (Johannes Bubeck, Kai Jäger, Nikolay Marinov, and Federico Nanni: Why Do States Intervene in the Elections of Others? The Role of Incumbent-Opposition Divisions). The study shows that the United States and the United Kingdom are more likely to intervene in elections abroad when domestic parties are polarized on foreign policy.

Fact sheet

2014 to 2020
Data Sources: 
representative surveys
Geographic Space: 
Hungary, Slovakia, Serbia, Bosnia, Ukraine and Turkey



Bubeck, Johannes, and Nikolay Marinov (2019): Rules and Allies: Foreign Election Interventions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. more